MUDUMALAI OR “Ancient Hill Range”, situated at the base of the Nilgiri Hills, is separated from Karnataka’s Bandipur National Park by the Moyar river. This sanctuary is an important constituent of the 5,500-so km (2,124-sq mile) Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve of the Western Ghats. Along with adjacent Bandipur and Nagarhole, it provides one of the most important refuges for the elephant and the bison in India. The park encompasses 322 sq km (124 so miles) of undulating terrain, and rises to 1,250 m (4,101 ft) at Moyar
Betta. The lowest point of the sanctuary is at the picturesque Moyar Waterfalls. Its topography is as varied as the vegetation, which ranges frorr dense deciduous forests of teak, laurel and rosewood in the west, to scrub jungle towards the east, interspersed with grassland, swamps and bamboo brakes. The sanctuary provides a habitat for a rich diversity of wildlife, including the Nilgiri tahr sambar, tiger, leopard, spotted deer, flying squirrel, Malabar civet and Nilgiri langur. Over 120 specie: of birds, resident and migratory, can be seen here as well. These include the scops owl and the crested hawk eagle.