MOST FAMOUS for its bird sanctuary, the kingdom of Bharatpur was founded by the fearless Jats, a community of landowners. Theirmost remarkable leader, Raja Suraj Mal (r.1724-63), fortified the city of Bharatpur in 1733 and used the loot from Mughal buildings to embellish the forts and palaces of his kingdom. In the centre of the town is Lohagarh (“Iron Fort”), a masterpiece of construction. Its massive double ramparts of packed mud and rubble surrounded by impressive moats withstood repeated attacks by the Marathas and the British until it was finally captured by Lord Lake in 1805. Three palaces built in the fort display a fine mix of Mughal and Rajput stylistic detail. One is now the site of a pharmaceutical college, while the other two, around the Katcheri Bagh, house the State Museum. Its artifacts include a rare collection of 1st- and 2nd-century stone carvings. An interesting sunken hainam (bath) is close by. In 1818, Bharatpur became the region’s first princely state to sign a treaty with the East India Company .