ENOWNED FOR ITS Maha Chateau , or “Great Stupa”, Arnravati was once the most impressive of the many Buddhist religious settlements along the Krishna Valley. Today, nothing remains of this stops except a low earthen mound, but in its day it was reputed to be the largest and most elaborate stupa in South India. It was built by the Satavahanas, the great Andhra dynasty, in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC .
The Maha Chaitya was enlarged several times by the Ikshvaku kings, who succeeded the Satavahanas, reaching its foal form between the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. Clad in the local white limestone, the Maha Chaitya was an earthen hemispherical mound about 45 m (148 ft) in diameter and more than 30 m (98 ft) in height, including its supporting drum and capping finial. It was surrounded by a 6-m (20-ft) high railing with posts and cross pieces, and lofty entrance gateways at the cardinal points, all exuberantly carved.
In the 5th century, when South India saw a revival of Hinduism, the stupas was abandoned, and remained so until a British official, Colonel Colin Mackenzie, began excavating the site in 1796. Unfortunately, by the time a thorough investigation of the ruins began in the mid-19th century, most of the limestone portions had been pillaged, many fine pieces having been shipped to Britain.
Nevertheless, a great deal of fine sculpture remains at the site, and is on display at the Archaeological Museum, next to the Maha Chaitya. Unlike the stupa at Sandhi , where the Buddha is represented through symbols such as the Bodhi Tree or footprints, the Amravati sculptures show him in human form. The museum’s display includes large Standing Buddha images, some more than 2 m (7 ft) high, whose natural poses and elegantly fluted robes suggest the influence of late Roman classical art. The second gallery has a remarkable life sized ceremonial bull reconstructed from fragments discovered in 1980. A part of the stupa’s railing, decorated with scenes from the Buddha’s life, is reconstructed in the courtyard. Other exhibits include an instructive model of the original monument and superb sculptures of the Bodhi Tree, under which the Buddha is said to have meditated.
ENVIRONS: Overlooking the Krishna river, just north of the museum, is the Amareshvara Temple. Built during the 10th and 11th centuries, it was renovated in the 18th century by a local chief whose statue stands in the outer hall. The sanctuary and the open-columned hall are in a walled compound. A basement, reached by a flight of stairs, is believed to conceal the remains of a stupa, suggested by the pillarshaped linga in the sanctuary, which was probably part of the stupa dome.